Gas Chromatography

Chromatography refers to a method used to detach chemical substances that depends on different partitioning actions between a stationary phase and a flowing mobile phase for separating elements in a mix.

The sample is shipped by a stream of moving gas through a tube that is filled with evenly separated solid, or could be coated with a liquid film. Gas chromatography is one of the most critical tools in chemistry because of its ease, highly effective nature, and sensitivity. It is most frequently used to conduct qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures, to purify compounds, and to uncover certain thermochemical constants.

Gas chromatography is also widely used in the automatic monitoring of industrial processes. Take, to demonstrate, gas streams that are often analyzed and adjusted with manual or automatic responses to cancel out undesirable differences.

There are several routine analyses that are conducted quickly in environmental and other fields of the like. As an example, there are several countries with certain monitor points that exist as a way of constantly assessing emission levels of gases such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen dioxides. Additionally, gas chromatography can be utilized in analyzing pharmaceutical products.

The technique for gas chromatography begins with introducing the test mixture into a stream of inert gas, usually a gas that serves as a carrier gas such as argon or helium. Samples in liquid form are first vaporized before they are injected into the stream of carrier gases. Next, the gas stream transfers through the packed column that contains elements of the sample moving at speeds that are based on the level of interaction between each constituent with the stationary nonvolatile phase. Those parts that have a more prominent interaction with the stationary phase are delayed more and thus divide from those with a less significant interaction. As these components begin to be eliminated out of the column with a solvent, they can be measeured by a detector and/or kept for additional analysis.

There are two main types of gas chromatography: gas-solid chromatography (GSC) and gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The first, gas-solid chromatography, is centered around the solid stationary phase, during which retention of analytes happens as a result of physical adsorption. Gas-liquid chromatography is often employed when detaching ions that can be dissolved in a solvent. If it crosses paths with a second solid or liquid phase, the different solutes in the sample solution will interact with the other phase to certain degrees that are different based on differences in adsorption, exchange of ions, partitioning or size. These differences give the mixture components the ability to divide from each other when they use these difference to change their moving times of the solutes through a column.

Gas Chromatography with Carrier Gases

When selecting a carrier gas, the selection depends on the nature of the detector being used and the elements that are being determined. Carrier gases used in chromatographs should be highly pure and chemically inert towards the sample. To ensure that there is no additional water or other impurities, the carrier gas system may have a molecular sieve.

The most prominent injection systems used to introduce gas samples are the gas sampling valve and injection via syringe. Both liquid and gas samples are able to be injected with a syringe. When in its most simple form, the sample is at the start injected into and vaporized in a heated chamber, then moved to the column. When packed columns are used, the first section of the column is most often employed as an injection chamber and warmed to a proper temperature separately. With capillary columns a small componentvof the vaporized sample is transferred to the column from a separate injection chamber; this is called split-injection. This technique is employed when trying to keep the sample volume from overloading the column.

A process called on-column injection can be employed for capillary gas chromatography when trace components could be found in the sample. In on-column injection, the liquid sample injected with a syringe straight into the column. Next, the solvent has the ability to evaporate and a concentration of the sample components occurs. In gas samples, the concentration is made by a technique referred to as cryo focusing. In this process, the sample components are concentrated and divided from the matrix by condensation in a cold-trap prior to the chromatography process.

To conclude, there is also a method called loop-injection, and it is commonly used in process control where liquid or gas samples flow consistently through the sample loop. The sample loop is filled with a syringe or an automatic pump in an off-line position. Next, the sample is transferred from the loop to the column by the mobile phase, sometimes including a concentration step.

Whether you’re in search of specialty gases to be employed in gas chromatography, or any other industry that employs specialty gases, PurityPlus has a plethora of specialty gas products to meet your need. We have a large selection of specialty gases and specialty gas equipment, along with the resources and experts on hand to provide assistance in any areas you may need. For additional information, browse our online catalog or via email at or at 559-341-4456.